Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology is used to identify, track, and locate all kinds of living and non-living objects from a certain distance without contact. RFID technologies are becoming increasingly widespread throughout the world and in our country and are used in many sectors. It is actively and widely used in a wide range of applications in many sectors such as automotive, fuel oil, logistics, retail, agriculture, healthcare, medicine, textile, finance, banking, energy, public, manufacturing, security, tourism.
RFID technologies significantly reduce operational costs, speed up workflows, and increase efficiency and profitability.
RFID technology consists of 3 basic components:
1- RFID Tag (TAG)
2- RFID Reader
3- Programming Tool
RFID tags are placed on or inside the objects to be recognized. The communication required to read the information recorded on the chip inside the RFID tag is provided by radio frequency (RF) signals through the reader and the antenna inside the tag. When the RFID tag enters the reading area, it is detected by the reader and sends the information stored in it together with the chip’s own code to the reader wirelessly and without contact.
Depending on the method of receiving the energy, labels are divided into three as active, passive, and semi-passive. Active RFID tags contain an energy source for communication and processing, while passive RFID tags receive the necessary energy from RF signals. The antenna on the RFID tag enables the reader to communicate with the tags. The working distance of passive tags is up to 1-2 meters. Active tags, on the other hand, have operating distances of several 100 meters due to the presence of power sources. RFID tags can be physically designed in many ways. Tags are produced in different shapes, sizes, and packages according to need.
RFID active tags have a unique ID code (unique ID code) and all kinds of information about the objects to be recognized and recorded. The memory capacities of the chips in RFID tags can be determined according to the application/need. The information such as the names of the objects, product codes, etc. can be decoded with a maximum of 1K memory capacity. High memory capacity is necessary when a large amount of object information is desired to be loaded or to continuously record tracking information or tracking objects, depending on the application.
Sensors have been added to RFID tags by the manufacturer, allowing them to perform different functions. They measure atmospheric conditions in the environment such as humidity, heat, pressure. Electronic chips used in labels are very difficult to copy or decipher. More than one protection level can be set. Using security technologies, access to information inside the chip can be blocked, the chip can be locked or rendered unusable.
RFID readers are in 3 types as handheld, vehicle-mounted, and fixed. They perform the task of reading the codes of the tags and the information stored in them and transmitting them to the system. Readers also work according to the standards of the chips (such as ISO 14443, ISO 15693). Reading capacity of the RFID reader; depends on many factors such as the frequency and power of the chip, whether the RFID tag is active or passive, the sensitivity of the antenna, whether there is liquid or metal in the environment. Reading capacity is generally higher than writing capacity for readable labels. Active RFID chips also have wider coverage than passive RFID chips.
RFID Writers (Programming Tool)
RFID printers are also available in fixed and portable models like readers. RFID printers are used to record information on the chips inside the tags, to read and update the information. They can be connected to the desktop, laptop, and handheld computers wired or wireless. In addition to recording information on the chip inside the RFID tag, there are also RFID printers that print the tag.